Relativity without Einstein
- Relativity without Space-Time -

True! The concept of a 4-dimensional space-time is by no means necessary to explain relativistic effects!

Special Relativity comprises three phenomena occurring at fast motion:

(1)     Physical objects contract
(2)     Clocks change their speed (and so their time indications)
(3)     Masses increase

And: Every measurement of the speed of light ‘c’ has the same result. This can be taken as the origin of the above phenomena (Einstein). Or, the other way around: The measured constancy of the speed of light is the consequence of the these phenomena (Lorentz).

In the world of Einstein the relativistic phenomena are the consequence of the intrinsic properties of space and time. - This is an inevitable consequence of Einstein’s assumption – his “principle” – that ‘c’ is constant also as a one-way-speed in every direction. However, this “principle” is not supported by any experiment in the way used (see the addition at the end of this page).

There is a much simpler explanation available in the view of other physical facts.

  1. The contraction is the simple consequence of the fact that the fields, which bind the constituents of physical objects, contract. The reason for this is the finite speed of light by which the binding fields propagate at motion.

    This consequence was seen very early after the Michelson-Morley experiment by several physicists (e.g. Heaviside, Fitzgerald, Lorentz) who referred to the recently developed theory of Maxwell about electromagnetism.

  2. The dilation of every periodic process (like a clock function) at motion is an immediate consequence of the internal oscillation of elementary particles. The constituents of elementary particles are mass-less and orbit each other at the speed of light.

    This behaviour of elementary particles was basically found by Louis de Broglie in 1923 when he detected the wave properties of elementary particles. A quantitative description was given by Paul Dirac in 1928 when he developed the famous Dirac Function of the electron. Erwin Schrödinger called this motion “Zitterbewegung”.

  3. The mass of elementary particles itself is also a consequence of the finite speed of light, by which the binding fields between the constituents of the elementary particles propagate.

    This mechanism causes also the increase of mass at motion, which is a direct consequence of the contraction. And this leads directly to the famous mass-energy-equivalence equation of Einstein.

The following figure shows the general set up of an elementary particle.






mass  m = 0

circulation = de Broglie frequency



The explanation of contraction and dilation as properties of fields and of matter conforms to the so called „Neo-Lorentzian Interpretation of Relativity“, named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. Lorentz provided the fundaments for the well known “Lorentz Transformation“, which is the basis of special relativity. Lorentz received the Nobel Price in 1902 in appreciation of his work on electromagnetism, which in turn provided fundamental facts on the way to the understanding of relativity.

You will find a physical deduction of the Lorentz Transformation as a consequence of the structure of fields and matter here.

General Relativity without Einstein is discussed in the context of gravity.

The origin of mass as well the deduction of its increase at motion is found here.

Addition: Why is Einstein different?

Einstein has based his theory of relativity on the assumption that the one-way speed of light is a universal
constant [1]. This speed, however, cannot be measured independently.

Einstein has called his assumption a “principle”.

The philosopher Hans Reichenbach, who was one of Einstein’s best friends and a strong promoter at the early time, has stated about the assumption of a constant one-way speed of light [2]:

"This definition is essential for the special theory of relativity, but it is not epistemologically necessary."

That means in clear words: Einstein’s understanding of relativity has no base without this assumption. But the one-way speed cannot be measured in an experiment. Why not? Such measurement needs 2 clocks, one at the transmission point of the signal, one at the reception point. Both clocks have to be synchronized. Synchronization has according to Einstein to be done in the way that a light signal is send from one clock to the other one. And now the delay time of the signal is calculated by the same assumption that the speed of light is constant in every direction. - So this measurement uses a circular reasoning.

The only independent measurement of the speed of light is a two-way measurement: A light signal is send to a mirror and returned, and the total time is measured by one single clock. This is equivalently also reflected by the Michelson-Morley experiment. - However, the result of this measurement is not sufficient to support Einstein's understanding of relativity.

Consequence: If we follow Einstein’s principle about the constancy of the one-way speed of light, then we have no other choice than to assume such a kind of a 4-dimensional space-time, which is even curved in the general case.

If we do not follow Einstein, then we can stay with the conventional understanding of space and of time, and we can achieve the same results in a much easier way.

To prove this is the intention of this web site.

And please note:

Einstein's interpretation of relativity is in
conflict with the Sagnac experiment.

[1] Albert Einstein, Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper, Annalen der Physik, IV. Jg. 17, S. 891–921 (1905)
[2] H.R. Reichenbach, The Philosophy of Space and Time, Dover, New York (1958)



This site as a pdf-file